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AEI currently utilizes a RIEGL VZ400 Terrestrial Laser Scanner on various job sites.  This proecss utilizes a high accuracy 3D terrestrial LiDAR unit.  The data collected will be brought into a feature extraction software, TopoDOT.  TopoDOT utilizes a variety of tools to identify adn quickly extrapolate features within pointcloud data.  All features can then be imported into an AutoCAD drawing file.  AEI can provide an accurate 3D pointcloud of terrain plus any existing building or structures.  The pointcloud can also be converted for Building Information Models.

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Allen Engineering is involved with the civil design and surveying for the new park in Palm Bay, Flordia.  This Regional Park will feature 150 full service campsite hookups and is scheduled to break ground in 2018.  We are extremely proud to be involved in this project.

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Allen Engineering is beginning its 21st year associated with the Space Coast Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME).  During our 21 years, we have helped raise over $350,000 in scholarships and endowments.  We are extremely proud to be associated with SAME and its continued commitment to offer opportunities for students pursuing careers in the engineering field.


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Overall heart attack during sex buy 6.25mg coreg free shipping, however heart attack warning signs buy coreg 6.25mg visa, groundwater is expected to blood pressure 9040 6.25mg coreg with amex be relatively unaffected by the climate change due to blood pressure medication orthostatic hypotension buy 25mg coreg free shipping its buffering capacity. Groundwater, therefore, may increase in importance and help to ameliorate the worst effects of climate change on water resources and sustainable development. However, once seriously damaged, recovering groundwater resources requires vast amounts of funds and time. Stresses on groundwater have been increasing in Asia due to population growth and economic development, and groundwater management already faces critical implementation challenges. Climate change will add greater pressure on the resource, jeopardise sustainability, and intensify inter-sectoral and international conflicts over water, if appropriate adaptation strategies are not implemented. Structural adaptation measures (such as promoting water harvesting and conservation technologies) and institutional adaptation strategies (such as promoting local groundwater management) should be incorporated into comprehensive water management plans. The impact of climate change on groundwater resources and adaptation opportunities provide a new agenda for water management. To fill the knowledge gaps and reduce uncertainty regarding the predictions and impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and future groundwater management options, more research is needed. Priority research topics include downscaling studies of global climate change models and assessment of current groundwater management structures and institutions. Some key messages derived from the study to date include: (i) Existing water management institutions, policies and water infrastructure in Asia have not been successful in coping with current groundwater problems, so extra effort will be needed to counter the additional negative effects of climate change; (ii) Measures to cope with current groundwater stress and potential impacts of climate change include conserving and increasing groundwater storage and diversifying water sources to minimise the risk of water shortages; (iii) Rainwater harvesting structures for groundwater recharge and for domestic and agricultural use is a feasible structural adaptation option but new policies to promote rainwater harvesting need to be developed; (iv) Institutional adaptation should be promoted, including enhancement of groundwater governance and strengthened local groundwater management. Groundwater management policies can be made more effective by raising local awareness; (v) Innovative funding, like the Adaptation Fund, should be used to strengthen institutions, build capacity, educate the public and conduct research on the effects of climate change on groundwater resources; and (vi) Extensive research at local scales is needed to reduce the knowledge gap regarding the potential impact of climate change on groundwater resources. This information will help to formulate policies to counteract the impacts of climate change. Recent advances in water resources development and management in developing countries in Asia, Asian Water Development Outlook 2007 Discussion Paper. Groundwater markets and irrigation potential in South Asia: A micro study from Nepal. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options. Predicting average annual groundwater levels from climatic variables: an empirical model. Water harvesting and management in the cultivated uplands of Dhading watershed, Nepal. Rainwater Catchment Systems for Household Water Supply, Environmental Sanitation Reviews, No. Potential impacts of climate change on groundwater resources: From the High Plains of the U. Sustainable groundwater management in Asian cities: A final report of research on sustainable water management policy. The implications of global environmental change for human security in coastal urban areas. Rationalisation of industrial sector water use is the key to sound groundwater management. In the agricultural groundwater revolution: Opportunities and threats to development, edited by M. Groundwater and its susceptibility to degradation: A global assessment of the problem and options for management. Economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting in on farm reservoirs for the integrated farming system - a sustainable approach for small farmers. Assessment of fluoride intake, excretion, and health effects in Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand. Presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Southeast Asian Water Environment, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 7-9 November 2007. Rainwater harvesting and utilization, an environmentally sound approach for sustainable urban water management. Sea Level Rise affecting Vietnamese Mekong Delta: Water Elevation in Flood Season and Implications for Rice Production. Simulation of the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources in eastern England. Introduction Climate change is a complicated issue pertaining not only to the environment and science, but also to economics, politics and diplomacy. To address this global issue effectively requires international cooperation, domestic actions, integration across economic sectors, and the participation of multiple stakeholders and grassroots changes in human behaviour. In response to both processes, many countries in Asia are building domestic institutions. By structuring the relationships among domestic actors and influencing their preferences in dealing with climate change, domestic institutions are important because they influence how countries implement international treaties. They also can influence the effectiveness of international efforts that alter domestic policy priorities and regulations (Kanie et al. These factors combine to influence institutional responses to climate change, which, in turn, influence the outcomes of domestic implementation efforts. In addition, national governments alone cannot address climate change effectively. Participation of other stakeholders, especially local governments, private sector, civil society and academia, in domestic decision making and implementation is important. The Philippines is considered representative of an average developing country facing daunting financial, technical and human constraints in dealing with climate change. The objective is to identify successful practices in Asia that can be emulated by other governments considering reform of their own domestic institutions in response to climate change. Section three summarises the five country cases, followed by a comparative study in Section four.

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Communicating with distant neurons requires costly connections blood pressure young adult generic coreg 6.25 mg mastercard, and transporting electrical pulses over long distances is metabolically expensive heart attack kid lyrics buy 25mg coreg amex. Friends of two friends are more likely to blood pressure normal low high 25mg coreg amex know each other than are friends of two randomly chosen people prehypertension jnc 7 cheap coreg 6.25 mg amex. Muscles of the thumb and fingers will have more interconnections in their representation than do, say, muscles of the thumb and toe. This organization is, of course, advantageous since thumb muscles should be better coordinated with physically adjacent muscles of the palm than with those of the foot or tongue. Muscles are thus most economically represented in the neocortex by their geometric relationships in the body. A map of the physical layout of the body surface is also reflected in its neuronal representation. Neurons representing the skin surface of the thumb in the somatosensory cortex are adjacent to those representing the fingers and distant from those representing the skin of the foot. This likelihood rule is reflected by the tonotopic arrangement of neurons in the auditory cortex. Neurons in the retina, visual thalamus, and cortex combine information representing adjacent parts of the environment much more efficiently and not visible directly from the surface. Louis, the tug-of-war between hydrostatic pressure and the mechanical tension properties of the axons is responsible for the formation of cortical folding patterns (gyri). His tension-based theory (Van Essen, 1997) beautifully explains why strongly interconnected neighboring areas are consistently separated by an outward fold, whereas weekly connected regions are separated by an inward fold. Like a parachute, where the push is exerted to the middle of the canvas by air pressure whereas the ropes pull the edges, the domelike shape of neocortical gyri and cerebellar folia is brought about simply by opposing mechanical forces: a tensegrity solution. There are no good methods to determine the exact density of local connections, and the estimates vary from 10 to 90 percent (Miles, 1986; Markram et al. When neurons in layer 2/3 are connected to each other, they more likely share common input from layer 4 and within layer 2/3 than are unconnected pairs (Yoshimura et al. These maps are not simply formed according to some genetically determined blueprint but have to be created by the movement of a body whose morphology constantly changes, especially during early development (see Cycle 8 for discussion of the brain-in-the-body subject). This economic compromise of axon wiring is used to explain why higher-order maps get split and folded, instead of keeping an orderly two-dimensional layout. Even for a low-resolution screen, the possible variations are staggeringly high, yet only a very limited set of the theoretically possible combinations is interpreted as "figures" by a human observer. Of course, there is no a priori reason why some patterns are more meaningful than others. The real brain, however, is a "compromise" between its evolutionary "goals" and wiring/metabolic costs-an adaptation of brain circuits for making predictions and inferences about the physical world. For example, in nocturnal bats, a large portion of neurons and cortical connectivity is devoted to echolocation because echolocation is vital for their survival. Rodents with large sensory whiskers on their face developed a proportionally detailed somatosensory cortex with a remarkably precise topography of the snout whiskers. Finally, in the most complex brains, a large portion of the cortical mantle, called the associational cortex, is devoted to generating and processing events that are not directly related to sensory inputs or motor outputs. Remarkably, the cortical modules in the associational areas are not fundamentally different from the sensory or motor cortical areas, an indication that local computation in cortical modules is quite similar. Organizing most connections locally in cortical modules enables the brain to map out the neighborhood relations of the environment efficiently, because local interactions are the main organizational principle of the physical 40. For a quantitative treatment of wire optimization in the brain, see Cherniak (1995) and Chklovskii and Koulakov (2004). Julesz (1995) is a marvelous account of the early stages of visual processing, with numerous illustrations of motion coherence of random dot patterns. Read the original paper by Woolsey and Van der Loos (1970) or a recent review by Fox (2002) on the modular (barrel) organization of the somatosensory cortex. We may conclude, therefore, that the statistically correlated features of the environment are the principal reason for the primarily local tensegrity organization of the neocortex. These shapes have high contrast and sharp edges, yet the surprising and consistent finding is that bars and gratings evoke neuronal patterns that are quite different from those elicited by natural scenes. The more robust responses evoked by natural scenes are often used as an argument in favor of some cognitive interpretation of the visual input. Of course, nothing prevents the observer from interpreting even a random dot pattern as a meaningful figure. This compulsive interpretation is the basis the Rorschach inkblot test used by clinical psychologists. An alternative reason for the superior effectiveness of these natural stimuli is that the spatial statistics of their feature "neighborhoodness" are matched best by the connection topography and local computations of visual cortical neurons. Accordingly, the temporal response dynamics of the neurons in the visual cortex closely reflect the statistical properties of the visual scenes. The small cost we pay for such imperfection is illusions48 that inevitably arise when the brain is occasionally confronted with an unusually low-probability geometry of stimuli. The robust tensegrity plan prevents propagation of faults and allows no weak points. On the other hand, any compromise in the accuracy of the general plan has serious consequences. Allowing for just 10 percent imprecision could lead to the collapse of the tensegrity structure of the Superdome.

Dysesthesias (painful tingling and burning sensations) often accompany the weakness blood pressure chart pulse purchase coreg 25 mg. The diagnosis should be considered in infants with hypotonia after a difficult delivery (particularly breech deliveries) blood pressure medication used in pregnancy buy discount coreg 25 mg online. There is an identifiable motor-sensory level arteria obstruida 50 cheap coreg 6.25mg without a prescription, impaired bowel and bladder function prehypertension occurs when quizlet order coreg 25 mg amex, hyperreflexia, and an abnormal Babinski sign. In children younger than 3 years old, spinal cord dysfunction symptoms develop rapidly (hours to days); in older children the symptoms develop more gradually (days to weeks). Episodes are usually related to hypokalemia or hyperkalemia and may be primary (genetically transmitted) or secondary due to endocrine, renal, or gastrointestinal causes of hypokalemia or hyperkalemia. Acute ataxia typically presents as an unsteady, wide-based gait or refusal to walk; uncoordinated upper extremity movements may also be noted. Recent trauma, a family history of similar episodes and access to potential toxins or ingestions are also important. Consider that any acute ataxia could be the initial presentation of an episodic or recurrent disorder. The physical examination should include a thorough neurological assessment, including careful observation of gait, tone, strength, reflexes, maintenance of truncal posture, coordination of voluntary movements, and speech. Cranial nerves (particularly related to the eye), the fundoscopic exam, alterations in mental status (including excessive irritability), and any asymmetrical findings should be noted. Headaches, personality changes, and abnormal neurologic exam findings consistent with increased intracranial pressure are common. True ataxia does not occur, but the vertigo is so severe that the child collapses on the floor and is often frightened to the point that he or she refuses to stand or walk. In general, the first episode of such disorders resembles an acute ataxia; developmental delays or regression, family history of similar disorders (or consanguinity), associated symptoms of altered mental status, vomiting and diarrhea, unusual body odors, and (ultimately) a pattern of recurrence associated with illness, dietary changes, or other stressors are consistent with these diagnoses. Examples include Hartnup disease (associated with aminoaciduria and nicotinamide deficiency causing photosensitivity), maple syrup urine disease (the intermittent form causes recurrent attacks of ataxia and encephalopathy during times of stress), and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Ion channel mutations have been identified as causative in two autosomal dominant episodic ataxias: episodic ataxia type 1 (paroxysmal ataxia and myokymia) and episodic ataxia type 2 (acetazolamide-responsive ataxia). Acute ataxia, usually in association with fever is the most common initial presentation. Definitive diagnosis is usually not made until recurrent attacks have occurred, although imaging may suggest the diagnosis after the initial attack. The ataxia manifests at approximately 2 years of age and progresses to an inability to walk by adolescence. Telangiectasias develop in mid-childhood (commonly affecting bulbar conjunctivae, nose, ears, and exposed extremity surfaces), and diminished immunoglobulin levels predispose children to recurrent sinopulmonary infections. Symptoms of postconcussive syndromes may last 1 to 6 months; ataxia in affected children may be significant. Imaging at the time of the injury is recommended to rule out intracranial hemorrhage. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, alcohol, and antihistamines are commonly implicated; thorough questioning may be required to identify ingestion histories. Accidental ingestions are most common prior to school age, but peak again in adolescence with substance abuse. Urine toxicology 204 acterized by a slowly progressive ataxia, dysarthric speech, nystagmus, and skeletal abnormalities (flat feet, hammertoes, progressive kyphoscoliosis). A cardiac evaluation should be performed to rule out an associated cardiomyopathy. The majority of these conditions will be diagnosed clinically or via specific blood or genetic tests; neuroimaging is usually not contributory. The etiology is generally a postinfectious cerebellar demyelination, which is presumed to be the result of an autoimmune reaction following infection. The onset is acute ataxia and truncal instability with maximal severity at the onset; occasionally a child is unable to walk at all at the onset. Head titubation (bobbing), tremor, dysmetria, and ocular abnormalities may also occur, but mental status is always normal and reflexes are preserved. A drug screen is probably the most appropriate test to be done acutely to rule out unsuspected ingestions; other testing serves primarily to rule out other etiologies. As improvement should begin within a few days in acute cerebellar ataxia, imaging should be performed if rapid improvement of the ataxia does not occur. The cranial nerves are affected by the immune-mediated demyelination in this condition. Ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and areflexia occur after an infectious illness (particularly Campylobacter gastroenteritis). Vertical gaze is characteristically affected while horizontal gaze is typically preserved. Epstein-Barr virus, Listeria, and enterovirus (type 71) have been identified as etiologies. It may occur as a postinfectious entity, but is clearly recognized as a paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome and should prompt an investigation for neuroblastoma or (rarely) other neoplasms. Bibliography 21 Acute episodic ataxia ("pseudoataxia") may rarely be the demyelinating encephalomyelitis) is another postinfectious, immune-mediated condition with a more severe presentation than acute cerebellar ataxia, including altered mental status, seizures (which may progress to status epilepticus), and multifocal neurologic defects. A delirious state is often characterized by alternating periods of lucidity and frequently progresses to lethargy or coma. The patient should then be evaluated to rule out a potentially life-threatening intracranial process that requires urgent treatment. Any focality or asymmetry of the neurologic examination could suggest a problem localized to one cerebral hemisphere.

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Acidification in developing countries: Ecosystem sensitivity and the critical load approach on a global scale blood pressure medication regimen order coreg 25 mg with visa. Australian Dryland Salinity Assessment 2000 National Land and Water Resources Audit blood pressure drugs buy discount coreg 6.25 mg online. Meteorological Synthesising Centre-East heart attack 1d lyrics buy generic coreg 6.25 mg on line, Moscow and Chemical Coordinating Centre blood pressure 8040 discount coreg 25 mg without prescription, Kjeller Mutunga, K. Impact of desert dust on the biogeochemistry of phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems. World Map of the Status of Human-Induced Soil Degradation: A Brief Explanatory Note. In Philosophical Translations: Biological Sciences 352 (1356):917-928 Prentice, I. In Transactions of the Royal Society B, special issue: Water Cycle as Life Support Provider. In Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, International Water Management Institute, Colombo Rojstaczer, S. Demonstration of management and rehabilitation of acid sulphate soils at East Trinity. Relative importance of climate and land use in determining the future of global dust emission. Economic Opportunities in the Drylands Under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Estimating watershed service values of savannah woodlands in West Africa using the effect on production of hydro-electricity. Water Sector Assessment Report on the Countries of the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf. Sources of Asian dust and the role of climate change versus desertification in Asian dust emission. The following are the main messages of this chapter: Climate change, human use of water resources and aquatic ecosystems, and overexploitation of fish stocks influence the state of the water environment. This affects human well-being and the implementation of internationally agreed development goals, such as those in the Millennium Declaration. Evidence shows that implementing policy responses to environmental problems enhances human health, socio-economic growth and aquatic environmental sustainability. At continental, regional and ocean basin scales, the water cycle is being affected by long-term changes in climate, threatening human security. These changes are affecting Arctic temperatures, sea- and land ice, including mountain glaciers. The trend to increasing urbanization and tourism development has considerable impacts on coastal ecosystems. Concerted global actions are needed to address the root causes, while local efforts can reduce human vulnerability. Freshwater availability and use, as well as the conservation of aquatic resources, are key to human well-being. The quantity and quality of surface- and groundwater resources, and life-supporting ecosystem services are being jeopardized by the impacts of population growth, rural to urban migration, and rising wealth and resource consumption, as well as by climate change. Because agriculture accounts for more than 70 per cent of global water use, it is a logical target for water savings and demand management efforts. Stakeholders who pay attention to increasing the productivity of rain-fed agriculture and aquaculture, which can contribute to improved food security, are proving to be successful. Water quality degradation from human activities continues to harm human and ecosystem health. Three million people die from water-borne diseases each year in developing countries, the majority of whom are children under the age of five. Pollutants of primary concern include microbial pathogens and excessive nutrient loads. Water contaminated by microbes remains the greatest single cause of human illness and death on a global scale. High nutrient loads lead to eutrophication of downstream and coastal waters, and loss of beneficial human uses. Pollution from diffuse land sources, particularly agriculture and urban run-off, needs urgent action by governments and the agricultural sector. Pesticide pollution, endocrine-disrupting substances and suspended sediments are also hard to control. Aquatic ecosystems continue to be heavily degraded, putting many ecosystem services at risk, including the sustainability of food supplies and biodiversity. Global marine and freshwater fisheries show largescale declines, caused mostly by persistent overfishing. Freshwater stocks also suffer from habitat degradation and altered thermal regimes related to climate change and water impoundment. Total marine catches are being sustained only by fishing ever further offshore and deeper in the oceans, and progressively lower on the food chain. The trend of fish stock degradation can be reversed when governments, industry and fishing communities work together to reduce excess fishing effort, subsidies and illegal fishing.

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Specialty consultation or x-rays may be indicated in atypical or prolonged symptoms that do not respond to heart attack in spanish discount 12.5mg coreg mastercard therapy blood pressure record generic coreg 6.25 mg mastercard. Significant pain or guarding with attempted lateral or medial displacement of the patella (positive apprehension test) suggests a more serious disorder of chronic or recurrent patellar subluxation or dislocation blood pressure medication safe for breastfeeding buy discount coreg 12.5 mg on line. Significant pain or guarding with attempted lateral or medial displacement (positive apprehension sign) suggests subluxation heart attack unnoticed effective 25mg coreg. In patellar dislocation, the knee is usually locked in approximately 45 degrees of flexion. It is an overuse syndrome that most frequently affects volleyball and basketball players. Pain is localized to the inferior pole of the patella and is aggravated by activity. It is an overuse syndrome common in adolescent athletes who are undergoing a growth spurt. Examination reveals tenderness and swelling at the tibial tubercle and exacerbation of pain with resisted knee extension. Symptoms are commonly bilateral, although one side may be more symptomatic than the other. Patients complain of worsening pain with flexion activities (running, jumping, kneeling, climbing stairs). Typical x-ray findings are soft tissue swelling and occasionally avulsed bony spicules over the tibial tuberosity, although x-rays are not usually indicated when the condition is bilateral. X-rays should be obtained when the pain is unilateral, not located directly over the tibial tuberosity, and when cases are unresponsive to treatment. Most are asymptomatic, but occasionally pain may occur with sports, especially with jumping, or climbing stairs. Symptoms are usually unilateral, and the examination typically reveals pain at the superolateral pole of the patella. The term is typically applied to a pain syndrome experienced by adolescents, often 162 younger age groups. They are most commonly sports injuries due to a twisting motion that occurs when the knee is flexed and the foot is firmly planted on the ground. The injury may or may not be evident acutely; sometimes they present later with complaints of vague pain, recurrent effusions, stiffness, "giving out," clicking, and sometimes locking. The necrotic fragment (with the articular cartilage overlying it) partially or completely separates from the long bone. Patients complain of nonspecific pain, usually located around the patella and associated with activity. Patients typically present in late childhood or adolescence with vague complaints of pain and an audible pop or snap with flexion. Examination reveals a palpable bulge at the lateral joint line when the knee is flexed. Standing x-rays may show a widened lateral joint space, flattening of the lateral femoral condyle, or cupping of the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau. Effusions may develop slowly (2 to 3 days) after an injury or may present intermittently owing to an intracapsular injury (meniscal tear), overuse, or a rheumatoid process. Septic arthritis should be considered when a knee is acutely painful, warm, and swollen, especially if the patient is febrile or toxic; immediate aspiration is essential when septic arthritis is suspected. Aspiration may also be necessary for the diagnosis of chronic or recurrent knee effusions. This upward traction causes the annular ligament to partially slip off the radial head. They may prefer holding the arm splinted close to the body, often giving the impression of wrist pain. The history is generally the key to diagnosis; x-ray findings are nonspecific but films should be considered to rule out other injuries when the history is unclear. Be aware of the possibility of child abuse when unsuspected fractures are detected. A more severe viral-related myositis presents typically with severe calf pain and difficulty or refusal to walk 5 to 7 days after the acute onset of viral (most commonly influenza type B) symptoms. If bilateral or affecting the lower extremities, spinal cord injury must be considered. They present with diffuse tenderness along the lower third or half of the medial tibia; the pain onset is initially toward the end of a period of exercise but with progression will be present throughout activity. Consider x-rays only if a stress fracture is suspected; pain due to stress fractures will be localized, more severe, and present throughout activity. Radiographs will be normal in shin splints; they may also be normal until after 3 to 4 weeks of symptoms due to a stress fracture. There is either no history of trauma or one of a very minor injury followed by acute pain, swelling, and color and temperature change of the affected area days to weeks later. Erythema, warmth, and swelling occur initially; chronically, disuse atrophy and cool, clammy skin develop. Children complain of bilateral diffuse extremity pain, usually in the legs (thigh or calf). It typically occurs late in the day or at night and does not affect daytime activity. Massaging characteristically produces relief in these children; in contrast, massage would aggravate pain in most serious conditions.

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