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AEI currently utilizes a RIEGL VZ400 Terrestrial Laser Scanner on various job sites.  This proecss utilizes a high accuracy 3D terrestrial LiDAR unit.  The data collected will be brought into a feature extraction software, TopoDOT.  TopoDOT utilizes a variety of tools to identify adn quickly extrapolate features within pointcloud data.  All features can then be imported into an AutoCAD drawing file.  AEI can provide an accurate 3D pointcloud of terrain plus any existing building or structures.  The pointcloud can also be converted for Building Information Models.

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Allen Engineering is involved with the civil design and surveying for the new park in Palm Bay, Flordia.  This Regional Park will feature 150 full service campsite hookups and is scheduled to break ground in 2018.  We are extremely proud to be involved in this project.

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Allen Engineering is beginning its 21st year associated with the Space Coast Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME).  During our 21 years, we have helped raise over $350,000 in scholarships and endowments.  We are extremely proud to be associated with SAME and its continued commitment to offer opportunities for students pursuing careers in the engineering field.

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These similarities occur not because of common ancestry medicine nobel prize generic indinavir 400mg overnight delivery, but because of similar selection pressures-the benefits of not being seen by predators medications you cant drink alcohol with discount 400 mg indinavir visa. Mutational tweaking in the embryo can have such magnified consequences in the adult that embryo formation tends to symptoms diagnosis purchase 400 mg indinavir overnight delivery be conserved internal medicine order indinavir 400 mg line. As a result, structures that are absent in some groups often appear in their embryonic forms and disappear by the time the adult or juvenile form is reached. For example, all vertebrate embryos, including humans, exhibit gill slits and tails at some point in their early development. These disappear in the adults of terrestrial groups but are maintained in adult forms of aquatic groups such as fish and some amphibians. Great ape embryos, including humans, have a tail structure during their development that is lost by the time of birth. Groups that evolved since the breakup appear uniquely in regions of the planet, such as the unique flora and fauna of northern continents that formed from the supercontinent Laurasia and of the southern continents that formed from the supercontinent Gondwana. The presence of members of the plant family Proteaceae in Australia, southern Africa, and South America is best by their presence prior to the southern supercontinent Gondwana breaking up. Australia has an abundance of endemic species-species found nowhere else-which is typical of islands whose isolation by expanses of water prevents species to migrate. Fundamental divisions in life between the three domains are reflected in major structural differences in otherwise conservative structures such as the components of ribosomes and the structures of membranes. In science, a "theory" is understood to be a body of thoroughly tested and verified explanations for a set of observations of the natural world. Scientists have a theory of the atom, a theory of gravity, and the theory of relativity, each of which describes understood facts about the world. As such, a theory in science has survived significant efforts to discredit it by scientists. In contrast, a "theory" in common vernacular is a word meaning a guess or suggested explanation; this meaning is more akin to the scientific concept of "hypothesis. Individuals Evolve Evolution is the change in genetic composition of a population over time, specifically over generations, resulting from differential reproduction of individuals with certain alleles. If one measures the average bill size among all individuals in the population at one time and then measures the average bill size in the population several years later, this average value will be different as a result of evolution. Although some individuals may survive from the first time to the second, they will still have the same bill size; however, there will be many new individuals that contribute to the shift in average bill size. The theory of evolution explains how populations change over time and how life diversifies the origin of species. The mechanisms of the origin of life on Earth are a particularly difficult problem because it occurred a very long time ago, and presumably it just occurred once. Importantly, biologists believe that the presence of life on Earth precludes the possibility that the events that led to life on Earth can be repeated because the intermediate stages would immediately become food for existing living things. More effective reproducers would increase in frequency at the expense of inefficient reproducers. Organisms Evolve on Purpose Statements such as "organisms evolve in response to a change in an environment" are quite common, but such statements can lead to two types of misunderstandings. First, the statement must not be understood to mean that individual organisms evolve. The statement is shorthand for "a population evolves in response to a changing environment. A changed environment results in some individuals in the population, those with particular phenotypes, benefiting and therefore producing proportionately more offspring than other phenotypes. This results in change in the population if the characteristics are genetically determined. For example, applying antibiotics to a population of bacteria will, over time, select a population of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. The gene for resistance was already present in the gene pool of the bacteria, likely at a low frequency. The antibiotic, which kills the bacterial cells without the resistance gene, strongly selects individuals that are resistant, since these would be the only ones that survived and divided. Experiments have demonstrated that mutations for antibiotic resistance do not arise as a result of antibiotic. Species do not become "better" over time; they simply track their changing environment with adaptations that maximize their reproduction in a particular environment at a particular time. Evolution has no goal of making faster, bigger, more complex, or even smarter species, despite the commonness of this kind of language in popular discourse. What characteristics evolve in a species are a function of the variation present and the environment, both of which are constantly changing in a non-directional way. Species and the Ability to Reproduce A species is a group of individual organisms that interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring. According to this definition, one species is distinguished from another when, in nature, it is not possible for matings between individuals from each species to produce fertile offspring. For example, even though domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) display phenotypic differences, such as size, build, and coat, most dogs can interbreed and produce viable puppies that can mature and sexually reproduce (Figure 18. For example, even though bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) are both birds and eagles, each belongs to a separate species group (Figure 18. If humans were to artificially intervene and fertilize the egg of a bald eagle with the sperm of an African fish eagle and a chick did hatch, that offspring, called a hybrid (a cross between two species), would probably be infertile-unable to successfully reproduce after it reached maturity. Different species may have different genes that are active in development; therefore, it may not be possible to develop a viable offspring with two different sets of directions.

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When to symptoms vitamin b deficiency buy generic indinavir 400mg online use it You want to treatment knee pain buy indinavir 400mg fast delivery know if two sets of continuous data are significantly different from one another medicine 018 order indinavir 400 mg with mastercard. How to medicine prescription drugs buy generic indinavir 400 mg online interpret the value you calculate Use a t-test table to look up your value of t. Spearmans You want to know if rank there is a correlation correlation (not necessarily linear) between two paired sets of data. Cambridge International A Level Biology Conclusions and discussion the construction of a simple conclusion was described in Chapter P1 on page 259. In a written practical examination at A level, you will often be making conclusions from data that you have not collected yourself, which is a bit more difficult. The more experience you have of doing real practical work, the better equipped you will be to understand how to make conclusions from data provided to you. Your conclusion should begin with a simple statement about whether or not the hypothesis that was being tested is supported. This would also be the point at which you could mention the results of any statistical tests, and how they have helped you to make your conclusion. You should be prepared to give a description of the data, pointing out key features. This might involve looking for trends or patterns in the data, and identifying points on a graph where there is a marked change in gradient (Chapter P1, page 260). You could be asked to use the data to make further predictions, perhaps suggesting another hypothesis that could be tested. For example, for the petal length investigation (page 497), we could start to think about why the petal length in the woodland is greater than in the garden. As well as describing the data, you could be asked to use your scientific knowledge to attempt to explain them. It is important to remember that the data in an A level question could relate to anything from either the first or second year of your course, so you need to revise all of your work from both years in preparation for these examination papers. A hypothesis about the relationship between two variables predicts how one variable affects the other. To make up a 1% (mass/volume) solution, dissolve 1 g of the solute in a small amount of water, then make up to a total volume of 1 dm3. To make up a 1 mol dm-3 solution, dissolve 1 mole of the solute in a small amount of water, then make up to a total volume of 1 dm3. The mean of a set of data is calculated by adding up all the individual values and dividing by the total number of readings. Standard deviation is a measure of how much the data are spread on either side of the mean. Standard error is a measure of the likelihood of the mean of your sample being the true mean of the whole population. This can be shown by drawing error bars on a bar chart, where the error bar extends 2 standard errors above and below the plotted value. If the error bars do not overlap, it is possible that there is a significant difference between them, but this is not necessarily so. The t-test is used to determine whether or not two sets of quantitative data, each with an approximately normal distribution, are significantly different from one another. The 2 test is used to determine whether or not observed results differ significantly from expected results. The Pearson linear correlation test is used to determine whether or nor there is a linear correlation between two sets of quantitative data. You should be able to reach a conclusion about the data and use of statistical tests, and perhaps make suggestions for further experimental work. Chapter P2: Planning, analysis and evaluation End-of-chapter questions 1 a Calculate the standard deviation, s, for the fruit mass data on page 495. Draw error bars on your bar chart, and add a key to explain what the error bars represent. Pod 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Length / mm 134 71 121 83 99 107 82 119 Mass of seeds / g 35 18 30 21 23 29 17 34 a Draw a scatter graph of these results. Show all of your working, and explain what your calculated value of r suggests about the relationship between the length of a bean pod and the mass of the seeds. Quadrat 508 Number of species F Number of species G 34 8 47 19 6 41 22 38 8 22 8 21 38 3 15 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 a Draw a scatter graph of these results. The leaves next to the wall were in the shade and looked different from the leaves on the side away from the wall that were exposed to the sun. The student carried out t-tests for the leaf surface area: leaf mass ratio and for internode length. The formula for the t-test is: [1] [8] t= - - x1 x 2 2 2 s1 s2 +n n1 2 b i Copy and complete the calculation to find the value of t for the internode length. In the list below, only the R groups are shown; the rest of the amino acid molecule is represented by a block. The three-letter abbreviation for each amino acid is, in most cases, the first three letters of its full name (Appendix 1). While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting. It is useful to familiarise yourself with what you are expected to know for your examinations.

This induced expression of repair genes does not occur to symptoms vaginitis cheap indinavir 400 mg mastercard a significant extent in human cells asthma medications 7 letters cheap 400mg indinavir overnight delivery, although changes in signal transduction do take place 9 treatment issues specific to prisons order indinavir 400 mg amex. A type of apparent adaptive response symptoms ptsd buy 400 mg indinavir free shipping, however, has been documented for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes stimulated to divide. Genomic Instability During the last decade, evidence has accumulated that under certain experimental conditions, the progeny of cells surviving radiation appear to express new chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations over many postirradiation cell generations. Some inconsistencies were identified in the data that describe the diverse manifestation of induced genomic instability, and clear evidence of its general involvement in radiation-induced cancer is lacking. Evaluation of the relevance of adaptation, low-dose hypersensitivity, bystander effects, and genomic instability for radiation carcinogenesis Mechanistic data are needed to establish the relevance of these processes to low-dose radiation exposure. Relevant end points should include not only chromosomal aberrations and mutations but also genomic instability and induction of cancer. In vitro and in vivo data are needed for delivery of low doses over several weeks or months at very low dose rates or with fractionated exposures. The development of in vitro transformation assays utilizing nontransformed human diploid cells is judged to be of special importance. Although less well established, the data available point toward a single-cell (monoclonal) origin for induced tumors and suggest that low-dose radiation acts predominantly as a tumor-initiating agent. One mechanistic caveat explored was that novel forms of cellular damage response, collectively termed induced genomic instability, might contribute significantly to radiation cancer risk. However, telomereassociated mechanisms did provide a coherent explanation for some in vitro manifestations of induced genomic instability. The data considered did not reveal consistent evidence for the involvement of induced genomic instability in radiation tumorigenesis, although telomere-associated processes may account for some tumorigenic phenotypes. A further conclusion was that there is little evidence of specific tumorigenic signatures of radiation causation, but rather that radiation-induced tumors develop in a tumor-specific multistage manner that parallels that of tumors arising spontaneously. Since, however, the induction or development of these two cancer types is believed to proceed via atypical mechanisms involving cell killing, it was judged that the threshold-like responses observed should not be generalized. Hormesis the possibility that low doses of radiation may have beneficial effects (a phenomenon often referred to as "hormesis") has been the subject of considerable debate. Although examples of apparent stimulatory or protective effects can be found in cellular and animal biology, the preponderance of available experimental information does not support the contention that low levels of ionizing radiation have a beneficial effect. At this time, the assumption that any stimulatory hormetic effects from low doses of ionizing radiation will have a significant health benefit to humans that exceeds potential detrimental effects from radiation exposure at the same dose is unwarranted. Identification of molecular mechanisms for postulated hormetic effects at low doses Definitive experiments that identify molecular mechanisms are necessary to establish whether Copyright National Academy of Sciences. Tumorigenic mechanisms Further cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies are needed to reduce current uncertainties about the specific role of radiation in multistage radiation tumorigenesis; such investigations would include studies with radiation-associated tumors of humans and experimental animals. The review of cellular, animal, and epidemiologic or clinical studies on the role of genetic factors in radiation tumorigenesis suggests that many of the known strongly expressing cancer-prone human genetic disorders are likely to show an elevated risk of radiation-induced cancer, probably with a high degree of organ specificity. Cellular and animal studies suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying these genetically determined radiation effects largely mirror those that apply to spontaneous tumorigenesis and are consistent with knowledge of somatic mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Limited epidemiologic data from follow-up of second cancers in gene carriers receiving radiotherapy were supportive of the above conclusions, but quantitative judgments about the degree of increased cancer risk remain uncertain. However, since major germline deficiencies in the genes of interest are known to be rare, it has been possible to conclude from published analyses that they are most unlikely to create a significant distortion of population-based estimates of cancer risk. A major theme developing in cancer genetics is the interaction and potential impact of more weakly expressing variant cancer genes that may be relatively common in human populations. Genetic factors in radiation cancer risk Further work is needed in humans and mice on gene mutations and functional polymorphisms that influence the risk of radiation-induced cancers. Where possible, human molecular genetic studies should be coupled with epidemiologic investigations. Revision of the Baseline Frequencies of Mendelian Diseases in Humans the baseline frequencies of genetic diseases constitute an important quantity in risk estimation. While there is no reason to consider revision of the baseline frequencies of congenital abnormalities (6%) and chronic diseases (65%), these two classes together constitute what are referred to as "mul- Copyright National Academy of Sciences. The prediction is that a new equilibrium between mutation and selection will be reached. The time it takes in terms of generations to attain the new equilibrium, the rate of approach to it, and the magnitude of increase in mutant (and disease) frequencies are dependent on the induced mutation rate, the intensity of selection, and the type of disease. In humans, the problem can be explored using genomic databases and knowledge of mechanisms of the origin of radiation-induced deletions to predict regions that may be particularly prone to such deletions. These predictions can subsequently be tested in the mouse, these tests can also provide insights into the potential phenotypes associated with such deletions in humans. With respect to epidemiology, studies on the genetic effects of radiotherapy for childhood cancer, of the type that have been under way in the United States and Denmark since the mid-1990s, should be encouraged, especially when they can be coupled with modern molecular techniques (such as array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These techniques enable one to screen the whole genome for copy number abnormalities. Advances in human genetics now suggest that the frequencies of Mendelian diseases. Delineation of a New Concept-The Concept of Potential Recoverability Correction Factor Mouse data on rates of radiation-induced mutations constitute the primary basis for estimating the risk of radiationinducible genetic diseases in humans.

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The recent rise in obesity and related diseases makes understanding the role of diet and nutrition in maintaining good health all the more important medicine 3604 pill generic 400 mg indinavir fast delivery. Depending on their diet medicine 95a pill generic indinavir 400mg with amex, animals can be classified into the following categories: plant eaters (herbivores) medicine hat jobs generic indinavir 400mg free shipping, meat eaters (carnivores) symptoms rotator cuff injury discount indinavir 400mg on-line, and those that eat both plants and animals (omnivores). The nutrients and macromolecules present in food are not immediately accessible to the cells. There are a number of processes that modify food within the animal body in order to make the nutrients and organic molecules accessible for cellular function. As animals evolved in complexity of form and function, their digestive systems have also evolved to accommodate their various dietary needs. Herbivores, Omnivores, and Carnivores Herbivores are animals whose primary food source is plant-based. These animals have evolved digestive systems capable of handling large amounts of plant material. Herbivores can be further classified into frugivores (fruit-eaters), granivores (seed eaters), nectivores (nectar feeders), and folivores (leaf eaters). Obligate carnivores are those this OpenStax book is available for free at cnx. Facultative carnivores are those that also eat non-animal food in addition to animal food. Note that there is no clear line that differentiates facultative carnivores from omnivores; dogs would be considered facultative carnivores. The simplest example is that of a gastrovascular cavity and is found in organisms with only one opening for digestion. Platyhelminthes (flatworms), Ctenophora (comb jellies), and Cnidaria (coral, jelly fish, and sea anemones) use this type of digestion. Once the food is ingested through the mouth, it passes through the esophagus and is stored in an organ called the crop; then it passes into the gizzard where it is churned and digested. From the gizzard, the food passes through the intestine, the nutrients are absorbed, and the waste is eliminated as feces, called castings, through the anus. Vertebrate Digestive Systems Vertebrates have evolved more complex digestive systems to adapt to their dietary needs. Monogastric: Single-chambered Stomach As the word monogastric suggests, this type of digestive system consists of one ("mono") stomach chamber ("gastric"). Humans and many animals have a monogastric digestive system as illustrated in Figure 34. The teeth play an important role in masticating (chewing) or physically breaking down food into smaller particles. Using peristalsis, or wave-like smooth muscle contractions, the muscles of the esophagus push the food towards the stomach. In order to speed up the actions of enzymes in the stomach, the stomach is an extremely acidic environment, with a pH between 1. The gastric juices, which include enzymes in the stomach, act on the food particles and continue the process of digestion. Further breakdown of food takes place in the small intestine where enzymes produced by the liver, the small intestine, and the pancreas continue the process of digestion. The nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream across the epithelial cells lining the walls of the small intestines. The waste material travels on to the large intestine where water is absorbed and the drier waste material is compacted into feces; it is stored until it is excreted through the rectum. However, in the rabbit the small intestine and cecum are enlarged to allow more time to digest plant material. Rabbits digest their food twice: the first time food passes through the digestive system, it collects in the cecum, and then it passes as soft feces called cecotrophes. Avian Birds face special challenges when it comes to obtaining nutrition from food. Birds have evolved a variety of beak types that reflect the vast variety in their diet, ranging from seeds and insects to fruits and nuts. Because most birds fly, their metabolic rates are high in order to efficiently process food and keep their body weight low. The stomach of birds has two chambers: the proventriculus, where gastric juices are produced to digest the food before it enters the stomach, and the gizzard, where the food is stored, soaked, and mechanically ground. Most of the chemical digestion and absorption happens in the intestine and the waste is excreted through the cloaca. Food passes from the crop to the first of two stomachs, called the proventriculus, which contains digestive juices that break down food. From the proventriculus, the food enters the second stomach, called the gizzard, which grinds food. Some birds swallow stones or grit, which are stored in the gizzard, to aid the grinding process. Instead, uric acid from the kidneys is secreted into the large intestine and combined with waste from the digestive process. Recent fossil evidence has shown that the evolutionary divergence of birds from other land animals was characterized by streamlining and simplifying the digestive system. The horny beak, lack of jaws, and the smaller tongue of the birds can be traced back to their dinosaur ancestors.

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